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This course presents a comprehensive and systematic description of the concepts and principles of operation and application of protection schemes for various power system elements such as feeders, transformers, motors, buses, generators, etc.

Course Outline
After participating in this seminar you will be able to do the following:
understand basic industrial and utility system protection techniques including fault analysis
further your knowledge of protective devices being used in your organization
determine your own relay settings
identify various current techniques used by experienced system designers
apply and approve protection schemes
solve common power system protection problems
calculate the basic fault currents flowing in any part of the electrical system
improve your electrical system protection against faults and overvoltage
select and apply microprocessor-based multi-function relays

Protection of low-, medium-, and high-voltage power systems requires an understanding of system faults and their detection, as well as their safe disconnection from the power system. This course presents a comprehensive and systematic description of protection schemes for various power system elements such as feeders, transformers, motors, buses, and generators.

Beginning with an overview of power system faults and protection scheme requirements for the detection and coordinated clearance of these faults, the course then covers protection requirements for cogeneration, non-utility generation, and interconnection with utility power systems. 

This course deals with protection systems from a practical perspective, including important functional aspects such as the testing and coordination of protection systems. Specially designed for industries and utilities, the seminar relates proper system protection to operational efficiency and the minimization of equipment damage.

To provide a practical understanding of protective devices for electrical power systems and equipment.

Who Should Attend
Engineers, technicians, and technologists who require knowledge of electrical system protection techniques in industrial, consulting, and utility fields involved in design, regulatory inspection, operation, and maintenance.

Welcome, Introduction, Workshop Preview, Learning Outcomes and the Assessment Method

Power System Faults

• Different types of faults
• Incidence of faults on power system equipment
• Effects of power system faults
• Magnitude of fault current
• Detection of faults
• Clearance of faults
• Requirements of protective relaying systems

Components of Power System Protection Schemes
• Fault-detecting relays
• The transition from electro-mechanical relays to electronic and digital microprocessor-based relays
• Tripping relays and other auxiliary relays
• The application of programmable logic controllers
• Circuit breakers - bulk oil, air-blast, vacuum, SF6
• Current transformers
• Voltage transformers
• Modern microprocessor-based relays - review types available

Current Transformers (CT) and Voltage Transformers (VT)
• Various types of CTs, VTs and CVTs
• Theory and characteristics of CTs
• Application requirements of CTs for protective relaying
• Accuracy classifications
• Future trends in CT design using optics
• Testing of CTs and VTs

Feeder Overcurrent Protection
• Protective relaying requirements for radial systems
• Elements of feeder protection schemes
• High-set, low-set and inverse-timed elements
• Coordination with other devices and fuses
• Various types of overcurrent relays
• Electromechanical, electronic and digital relays
• Relay setting criteria
• Load limitations
• Testing of overcurrent protection schemes
• Microprocessor-based feeder overcurrent relays - features, application and testing

Coordination of Electrical Protection Systems
• Fuse to fuse
• Circuit breaker to fuse
• Fuse to circuit breaker
• Computer software packages for protection coordination studies
• Auto-reclosing of circuit breakers
• Breaker Failure Protection
• Back-up protection
• Limitation of fault current
• Selective zones of protection

Bus Protection
• Types of bus protection schemes
• Basic concept of differential protection
• High impedance relays for bus differential protection
• Application to various bus configurations
• Bus Protection for radial systems
• Testing of bus protection schemes

Motor Protection, Starting and Control
• Applicable motor standards
• Methods of starting
• Differential protection, phase unbalance, overcurrent
• Ground fault protection
• Canadian Electrical Code requirements
• Microprocessor-based motor control and protection devices

Transformer Protection
• Overcurrent and ground fault protection
• Application of differential protection to transformers
• Restricted ground fault protection
• Gas relays, pressure and gas accumulation
• Winding temperature and oil temperature devices
• Testing of transformer protection schemes
• Modern microprocessor-based multi-function relays - available functions, application and testing

Generator Protection
• Differential protection
• Reverse power, stator ground, out-of-step, loss of field, field ground, overexcitation, interturn, etc.
• Over-frequency, underfrequency, overvoltage, undervoltage
• Negative phase sequence or phase unbalance
• Voltage controlled and voltage restricted overcurrent protection
• Synchronizing systems, synchro-check relays
• Comparison of electro-mechanical and electronic relays
• Testing of generator protection schemes
• Microprocessor-based multi-function generator protection relays - available relays, application and testing

Cogeneration and Non-Utility Generation (NUG) Protection
• Protection requirements for non-utility generating stations
• Requirements for the interconnection of NUGs to utility power systems
• Typical protection schemes for non-utility generators
• Low-cost microprocessor-based multi-function relays for small generators
• Breaker failure protection
• Testing utility tie protection schemes

Transmission Line Protection
• Interconnected systems with two-way flow of fault current
• Distance or impedance protection schemes
• Line current differential protection schemes
• Communication channel requirements between terminals
• Coordination and transfer-tripping between terminals
• Modern microprocessor-based line protection relays - available relays, features, applications and testing

Capacitor Protection
• Application of static capacitors on power systems
• Description of protection schemes used
• Testing of capacitor protection schemes
• Microprocessor-based capacitor protection and controls relays

Recent Developments and Future Trends in Protective Relaying
• Digital relays
• Integrated microprocessor based systems for control, monitoring, and protective relaying
• Communication protocols for substation automation IEC 61850
• Optical current transformers
• Fibre optic communications

Questions and Answers and Feedback to Participants on Achievement of Learning Outcomes

There will be a one-hour lunch break each day in addition to a refreshment and networking break during each morning and afternoon session.

Daily Schedule:
8:00   Registration and coffee (first day only)
8:30   Session begins
12:00 Lunch
4:30   Adjournment


Mike Southwood

Mike Southwood, BSc and P.Eng., earned his degree in electrical engineering in the UK and has since amassed more than 35 years of experience in the field of power system protective relaying. After working for the Central Electricity Generating Board in England Mr. Southwood spent 25 years with Ontario Hydro. He held the position of senior protection and control engineer in Cherrywood District, where he was responsible for commissioning and maintaining protective relaying, control, and metering schemes on the 500 kV, 230 kV, and 44 kV systems.

Mr. Southwood is currently chief electrical engineer with Eastern Power Ltd., a company that designs, builds, and operates non-utility generating stations. He has conducted numerous seminars and courses on power system protection for various North American industries and universities, as well as international electrical utilities.

Prerequisites & Certificates

Certificates offered

2.1 CEUs / 21 PDHs

Cancellation Policy
To withdraw from a course, you must send a request, in writing, with the official receipt to our office. Fifteen or more business days in advance: full refund less $50.00 administration charge. Five to fifteen business days in advance: non-refundable credit of equal value for any future EPIC seminar within one year. Credits are transferable within your organization. In case of an unexpected event occurring after this time, you may send someone else to take your place without any additional cost.
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Here are some reviews of the training vendor.
The course was very well presented and the course instructor was absolutely amazing.
Reviewed by 2013
Our instructor, Stephen Lamming, was outstanding and a true expert in his field. He was able to complement the technical air monitoring information with practical real life examples which was highly beneficial. He is an excellent communicator and was highly interactive with the course attendees. This course was recommended to me because Stephen Lamming does an outstanding job. I was very impressed with this course and have subsequently recommended it to my colleagues.
Reviewed by 2012
Would have liked more interactive problem solving.
Reviewed by 2011

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