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This seminar provides recommendations on sampling strategies based on these considerations. Biased and statistical sampling strategies will be presented and discussed.

Course Outline
After Participating In The Seminar, You Will Be Able To:
  • recognize critical issues in statistical sampling strategies and data analyses apply the correct statistical sampling and analyses methodologies
  • perform solid and hazardous waste characterization, consider your outliers and determine the confidence level for your calculated probability
  • prepare your sampling strategies and data collection methodologies
  • benefit from practical information received from an internationally recognized environmental expert and lecturer that will save you time, effort and money

Sampling strategies differ based on the sampling objectives (e.g. site characterization, verification of remediation, comparison to criteria or waste characterization), the variability of hazardous substances in the media being sampled, knowledge about the distribution of hazardous substances on the property and cost. This seminar provides recommendations on sampling strategies based on these considerations. Biased and statistical sampling strategies will be presented and discussed.

After sampling, the degree to which statistical analyses can be used and the selection of statistical methods vary depending on the exposure pathway, land-use, and the type of determination being made. Specifically the seminar will address the following issues:
  • Is statistical analysis appropriate?
  • What is the appropriate data set to statistically derive a representative concentration for comparison to criteria?
  • What is the appropriate statistical method to use for comparison to criteria?
Each statistical method will be presented using Microsoft Excel instead of statistical software packages. For each statistical method statistical tables will be supplied as well as the following aspects will be discussed:
  • assumptions underlying the method
  • description including procedures for implementing the method and example analyses illustrating the required steps

To provide you with a comprehensive understanding of how to:
  • design appropriate biased and statistical sampling plans for site characterization, verification of remediation, comparison to criteria, and comparison to background
  • use various statistical methods employed in site characterization, verification of remediation, comparison to criteria, and comparison to background
  • derive site specific background concentrations
  • identify and treat measured outliers
  • deal with non-detect values
Who Should Attend

Environmental consultants and environmental personnel involved in soil and groundwater sample collection, analysis, and monitoring programs. Although entry level and experienced professionals interested in sampling as well as users of environmental data will benefit, you can enhance your benefits by attending the ESA I  and ESA II seminars.

Program Outline

Day I

Registration and Coffee

Welcome, Introduction, Workshop Preview, Learning Outcomes and the Assessment Methods

Sampling Strategies

Judgmental Sampling Strategies

  • Conceptual Site Model Development
  • Site characterization (contaminated area & background)
  • Verification of remediation
  • Comparison to criteria
  • Excavated soil pile characterization
Statistical Sampling Strategies
  • Site characterization
  • Sampling grids for determining "HOT SPOTS"
  • Sampling grids based on size of area to be sampled
  • Verification of remediation
  • Comparison to criteria
  • Comparison of site data to site specific background concentrations
  • Excavated soil pile characterization
Case Studies by Participants
  • Biased and statistical sampling plans

Day II: Statistical Data Analyses

Statistical Distributions
  • Distribution types (normal, lognormal, other)
  • Methods of determining statistical distributions (normal and lognormal)
  • Evaluating statistical distributions with non-detect values
Identification and Treatment Of Outliers
  • Statistical methods for identification of outliers
  • Treatment of outliers
Calculation of 95% Upper Confidence Limit (UCL) For The Mean
  • Distribution type
  • Student's t-test (normal distribution)
  • Land's method (lognormal distribution)
  • Number of samples for normal distributions (Lambda Test, SW-846 Method)
  • Number of samples for lognormal distributions
Comparison of Site Data To Background
  • Background concentrations / criteria (national, provincial, regional, site specific)
  • Site specific background concentration / criteria calculations (normal and lognormal distributions)
  • Comparison of site data to site specific background
  • Background concentrations of groundwater
Case Studies by Participants
  • Application of concepts with typical data
DAY III: Miscellaneous & Forensic Environmental Analyses Using Statistical Techniques

Methodology & Case Studies
  • Regression & Correlation Analyses
  • Determination & Application of Half-Life Kinetic Constants
  • Trend Analyses for Remediation (Natural Attenuation & Active in Situ Treatment)
  • Petroleum Hydrocarbon Forensic Analyses
  • Chlorinated Solvents Forensic Analyses
  • Mixed Petroleum & Chlorinated Solvent Forensic Analyses
  • Chlorinated Dioxins & Furans Forensic Analyses
  • Metal Contamination Forensic Analyses
  • Arsenic Contamination Forensic Analyses
Questions and Answers and Feedback to Participants on Achievement of Learning Outcomes

Concluding Remarks and Final Adjournment

* There will be a one-hour lunch break each day in addition to a refreshment and networking break during each morning and afternoon session.


Dr. Nasrat Hijazi, PhD and C.Chem, is President of TDA Associates and a former professor in the Department of Physical & Environmental Sciences at the University of Toronto at Scarborough (UTSC). He received his BSc from the American University of Beirut and completed his PhD at the University of Ottawa in 1973. Starting in 1981, Dr. Hijazi held senior positions at leading environmental consulting and management companies including Dames and Moore Canada Inc. (currently URS), Clayton Environmental Group, and Sanexen International (Currently Sanexen Environmental Inc.). Aiming to provide cost effective and high quality professional training and consulting services, he formed TDA Associates in 1997.

Dr. Hijazi now has 35 years experience in the research and development of environmental management consulting, hazardous and industrial waste management, and site remediation. He is an environmental expert in areas of compliance to environmental acts, regulations, standards, guidelines, policies, and procedures. A member of various organizations and an ISO 14001 auditor, Dr. Hijazi is actively involved in Continuing Engineering Education as a teacher of professional development courses. He has also served as the founding chairman, president, and CEO of the Canadian Environmental Industry Association Ontario Chapter (ONEIA 91-92); director of CEIA-National (92-93); and a member of various government and institutional advisory committees.

Prerequisites & Certificates

Certificates offered

1.4 CEUs / 14 PDHs

Cancellation Policy
To withdraw from a course, you must send a request, in writing, with the official receipt to our office. Fifteen or more business days in advance: full refund less $50.00 administration charge. Five to fifteen business days in advance: non-refundable credit of equal value for any future EPIC seminar within one year. Credits are transferable within your organization. In case of an unexpected event occurring after this time, you may send someone else to take your place without any additional cost.
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EPIC Educational Program Innovations Center
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Here are some reviews of the training vendor.
The course was very well presented and the course instructor was absolutely amazing.
Reviewed by 2013
Our instructor, Stephen Lamming, was outstanding and a true expert in his field. He was able to complement the technical air monitoring information with practical real life examples which was highly beneficial. He is an excellent communicator and was highly interactive with the course attendees. This course was recommended to me because Stephen Lamming does an outstanding job. I was very impressed with this course and have subsequently recommended it to my colleagues.
Reviewed by 2012
Would have liked more interactive problem solving.
Reviewed by 2011

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