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This course combines theoretical & practical considerations & aspects of operational principles of transformers, their types, selection, testing, maintenance & troubleshooting. The course emphasizes transformer's operational performance characteristics..

Course Outline
Transformers are an indispensable part of electrical power systems.  This course combines theoretical and practical considerations and aspects of operational principles of transformers, their types, selection, testing, maintenance and troubleshooting.  The course emphasizes transformer's operational performance characteristics and electrical properties. The discussion is based on the latest Standards governing transformers and applications.   Objective To provide a comprehensive understanding of principles of operation, types, selection, testing and commissioning, protection, maintenance and troubleshooting of  electric power and distribution transformers.   Target Audience Electrical professionals who need to refresh and expand their knowledge, distribution system planners, maintenance managers, and power system consultants.  A basic understanding of electrical power system operations is needed, but participant do not necessarily have to be experts in the areas covered. In addition, professionals who are starting their career in the field of power in electrical utilities, industrial or commercial and institutional facilities will profit from this course.   Program Outline (1.2 CEUs / 12 PDHs)


Principles of Operation of Transformers

  • Electric currents and magnetic fields
  • Ideal Transformers
  • The B-H curve
  • The Magnetic circuit
  • Hysteresis, and eddy current losses
  • Steel Core Transformer
  • Equivalent Circuit of a Steel Core Transformer
  • Efficiency and Losses
  • Magnetizing currents and harmonics
  • Voltage Considerations
  • Thermal Considerations
  • Major Standards Organizations
  • Process for Acceptance of  American National Standards
  • Relevant Power Transformer Standards Documents

Power Transformers

  • Construction
  • Rating and Classifications
  • Short Circuit Duty
  • Accessory Equipment 
  • Inrush Current

Distribution Transformers

  • Construction
  • General Transformer Design
  • Transformer Locations
  • Performance
  • Transformer Loading
  • Special Tests
  • Protection

Underground Distribution Transformers

  • Vault Installations
  • Surface Operable Installations
  • Pad Mounted Distribution Transformers

Dry Type Transformers C57.94.1982

  • Installation
  • Application
  • Operation
  • Maintenance

Transformer Connections

  • Polarity of Single  Phase Transformers
  • Angular Displacement of Three  Phase Transformers
  • Three phase Transformer Connections
  • The Y-Y connection
  • Advantages and disadvantages of the Y-Y connection
  • The Y-Delta and Delta-Y connection
  • The Y-Delta grounding bank
  • Zigzag connections
  • Three phase banks using single phase transformers
  • Transforming two-phase voltages into three-phase voltages
  • The Scott-connected connection
  • Three phase transformer designs
  • Autotransformers and three-winding transformers
  • Paralleling of Transformers


Loading Power Transformers

  • Design Criteria
  • Nameplate Ratings
  • Other Thermal Characteristics
  • Thermal Profiles
  • Temperature Measurements
  • Predicting Thermal Response
  • Load Cyclicality
  • Water in Transformers Under Load
  • Voltage Regulation
  • Loading Recommendations

Auxiliary Equipment

  • Bushings types, standards, design parameters, and testing
  • Oil preservation systems
  • Cooling equipment
  • Temperature and oil level gauges

Transformer Selection and Application

  • Most economical transformer for your application

Transformer Protection

  • Fuses and relays
  • Gas Relays
  • Differential Protection
  • Code requirements

Testing Transformers

  • Standards, and Classification of Tests
  • Sequence of Tests
  • Voltage Ratio and Proper Connections
  • Insulation Condition
  • Dielectric Withstand
  • Performance Characteristics
  • Other Tests

Maintenance, and Troubleshooting

  • Preventative maintenance and predictive maintenance
  • Gas in oil analysis
  • Water in oil analysis
  • Drying techniques
  • Oil dielectric tests
  • Problem and failure investigations
  • Problem Analysis after Severe Operating Conditions
  • Where No Failure is involved
Instructor Dr. El-Hawary is a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Dalhousie University and was Associate Dean of Engineering between 1995 and 2007. His technical contributions cover more than forty years of sustained work in research, education and service to the community. On the research side, Dr. El-Hawary pioneered in computational solutions for economic operation of power systems including hydro-thermal systems. His fundamental  and pioneering work on economic operation of power systems, the application of computational intelligence techniques to power system operational problems is frequently referred to by the users community, and is documented in ten textbooks and research monographs and more than 300 research articles.
  He served as IEEE Canada President (2002-2003,) and Secretary of IEEE (2004-2005) and the Awards Board and Fellows Committee. Moreover, he served as IEEE Canada Awards Chair.
Dr. El-Hawary serves currently as a member of the 2010 Publications Services and Products Board, and is IEEE Press Power Engineering Series Editor. He served as Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Press in 2006-2007. He is Founding Editor, Power Letters, Power Engineering Society, is Associate Editor for the three major Electric Machines and Power Systems' Journals, and is Editor, Electrical Power Engineering, McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology
  Dr. El-Hawary received numerous awards and recognitions including the McNaughton medal and is a Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and the Engineering Institute of Canada.
Prerequisites & Certificates

Certificates offered

A certificate of completed Continuing Education Units (CEUs) will be granted at the end of this course. Each participant will receive a complete set of course notes and handouts that will serve as informative references.

Cancellation Policy
If you wish to withdraw from a course, you must advise us, in writing, including the official receipt. Our policies regarding refund are:

More than fifteen business days in advance: a full refund minus $50.00 administration charge.

Fifteen or less business days in advance: a transfer to another course or a credit, valid for one year, to another GIC course can be considered. Credits are transferable within your organization.

If the course has been running for more than 2 weeks, or after the course has started, an 80% credit towards another GIC course may be considered, if notice is received before the start date of the second session. After this time, no refunds or credits will be issued. If a speaker is not available due to unforeseen circumstances, another speaker of equal ability will be substituted.

GIC reserves the right to cancel or change the date or location of its events. GIC's responsibility will, under no circumstances, exceed the amount of the fee collected. GIC is not responsible for the purchase of non-refundable travel arrangements or accommodations or the cancellation/change fees associated with cancelling them. Please call to confirm that the course is running before confirming travel arrangements and accommodations.

Refund Policy: Allow up to 30 days for refunds to be processed.

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