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Course Outline

DESCRIPTION

De-regulation of the electricity markets is sweeping across the world.  There will be increasing opportunities for highly efficient power generating plants, such as combined cycle and co-generation, to compete against the older plants of established utilities.  These new plants are environmentally friendly and more than twice as efficient as the older fossil and nuclear generating plants.  Independent Power Producers and utilities are planning to construct additional combined cycle and co-generation plants due to their short construction lead-time and low capital investment.

Combined cycle plants have a 4 -5 year pay back period because of low staffing requirements and low operating and maintenance costs.  They also have the advantage of long-term fuel price stability, fuel flexibility and low emissions.  These plants can be located close to the power-user reducing transmission costs and increasing reliability.  Studies have identified combined cycles to be the most economic of available power generating methods.  A shake-up in the electricity market is forecasted and the competitive edge of combined cycle plants provides them with a promising future.

This seminar provides a thorough understanding of co-generation and combined cycle plants.  Each of the components such as compressors, gas and steam turbines, heat recovery steam generators, deaerators, condensers, lubricating systems, instrumentation, control systems, transformers, and generators are covered in detail.  The selection considerations, operation, maintenance and economics of co-generation plants and combined cycles as well as emission limits, monitoring and governing systems will also be covered thoroughly.  All the significant improvements that were made to co-generation and combined cycles plants during the last two decades will also be explained.

This seminar provides also indepth computer simulation of gas turbines under steady-state and transient conditions.  The analysis performed by gas turbine simulators provides the following benefits:

  • Allow the operator to extend the gas turbine operating period by avoiding unnecessary outages and maintenance activities
  • Determination of essential gas turbine maintenance activities to reduce the duration of the outage
  • The simulation program is capable of simulating the following parameters to determine their effects on gas turbine performance, turbine creep life, environmental emissions, gas turbine life cycle cost, revenue, and profitability: variations in ambient temperature and pressure, inlet and exhaust losses, engine deterioration, different faults, power augmentation methods including peak mode, and water injection, control system performance (including proportional offset, integral windup, and trips), variations in the fuel type (natural gas, diesel, etc), variations in maintenance techniques and frequency, variations in many key parameters. 
    The simulation program is also capable of trending the following:   

  • Many gas turbine key parameters such as exhaust gas temperature, speed, etc.
  •       2.   Compressor characteristics, and its operating point during engine transients.
    These trends can also be provided as bar charts.  The simulated data can be exported to other Window packages such as Excel spreadsheets, etc.  Many simulation exercises are included to describe how the simulation program should be used for different scenarios
    including co-generation and combined cycle plants.  
    Delegates are encouraged to bring the operational data of their gas turbines,
    co-generation and, combined cycle plants.  The instructor will be able to perform simulation of their plants to reduce unnecessary maintenance activities, optimize the profits, and minimize environmental emissions.

    OBJECTIVE

    To provide a comprehensive understanding of computer simulation of gas turbines, combined cycle and co-generation plants as well as their selection criteria, operation and maintenance requirements, and economics.  Participants will develop an in-depth understanding of these plants and their numerous advantages.

    WHO SHOULD ATTEND

    Engineers of all disciplines, managers, technicians, maintenance personnel, and other technical individuals

    SPECIAL FEATURE

    The following is included with your registration:

  • A book (600 pages) titled “POWER GENERATION HANDBOOK” published by
  •       McGraw-Hill in 2002 and authored by the instructor

  • A manual (300 pages) authored by the instructor covering additional information
  •        about power generation and computer simulation

  • Each delegate will receive a copy of the gas turbine computer simulation
  •       program

    Faculty: Philip Kiameh, University of Toronto/Ontario Power Generation

    PROGRAM OUTLINE

    Day I

    REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS PRINCIPLES
    The First Law
    The Enthalpy
    The Closed System
    The Cycle
    Property Relationships
    Perfect Gases
    Imperfect Gases
    Vapor-Liquid Phase Equilibrium in a Pure Substance
    The Second Law of Thermodynamics
    The Concept of Reversibility
    External and Internal Irreversabilities
    The Concept of Entropy
    The Carnot Cycle

    STEAM POWER PLANTS
    The Rankin Cycle
    Reheat
    Regeneration
    Feedwater Heating
    The Internally Irreversible Rankin Cycle
    Open or Direct-Contact Feedwater Heaters
    Closed-Type Feedwater Heater with Drains Cascaded Backward
    Efficiency and Heat Rate
    Supercritical Plants
    Cogeneration
    Types of Cogeneration
                The Topping Cycle
                The Bottoming Cycle
                Arrangements of Cogeneration Plants
                Economics of Cogeneration

    STEAM TURBINE COMPONENTS
    Introduction
    Mechanisms of Energy Conversion in a Steam Turbine
    Turbine components
                Main components
                Geometry of the rotating blades (buckets)
                Rotors, Shafts, and Drums
                Casings
                Exhaust Hood
                Casing illustrations and details
                Rotor illustrations and details
                Rotor illustrations and details
                Blades illustrations and details
                Nozzle rings and diaphragms illustrations and details
                Thrust bearings illustrations and details
                Labyrinth seals illustrations and details
                Turbine controls illustrations and details
                Overspeed trip system illustrations and details
                Testing of Turbine blades
                Quality Assurance of Turbine Generator Components
                Assembly and testing of turbine components

    STEAM TURBINES AND AUXILARIES
    Introduction
    Turbine Types
    Single Cylinder Turbines
    Compound Turbines
    Turbine Control Systems
    Speed Governors
    Pressure Governors
    Lubrication Requirements
                Journal Bearings
                Thrust Bearings
    Hydraulic Control Systems
    Gear Drives
    Turning Gear
    Factors Affecting Lubrication
    Circulation and Heating in the Presence of Air
                Contamination
    Lubricating Oil Characteristics
                Viscosity
                Load Carrying Ability
                Oxidation Stability
                Protection against Rusting
                Water Separating Ability
                Foam Resistance
                Entrained Air Release
                Fire Resistance

    STEAM TURBINE MAINTENANCE
    Lifecycle operating cost of a steam turbine
    Steam turbine reliability
    Boroscopic inspection
    Major cause of steam turbine repair and maintenance
    Advanced design features for steam turbines

    POWER STATION PERFORMANCE MONITORING
    Turbine efficiency tests
                Method and effect on heat rate
                Effect of loading
                Interpretation of results
    Turbine pressure survey
                Introduction
                Application of the method
                Main shaft gland-leakage rate

    THE TURBINE GOVERNING SYSTEMS
    Introduction
    Governor Characteristics
    Subsidiary Functions
                Acceleration Feedback
                Unloading Gear
                Governor Speed Reference
                Closed-Loop Control of Turbine Electrical Load
                Overspeed Testing
                Automatic Run-up and Loading Systems
                Electronic Governing
                Reheater Relief Valves
                Hydraulic Fluid System
                Filtration

    STEAM CHESTS AND VALVES
    Steam Chest Arrangements and Construction
    Steam Chest Material
    Steam Strainers
    Emergency Stop Valves
    Governor Valves

    TURBINE PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    Possible Hazards
    Protection Scheme
    Overspeed Trip

    TURBINE INSTRUMENTATION
    Instrumentation Categories
                Supervisory Instrumentation
                Efficiency Instrumentation

    LUBRICATION SYSTEMS
    Lubrication Requirements and typical Arrangements
    Oil Pumps
                Main Lubricating Oil Pump
                Turbine-driven Oil Booster Pump
                AC and DC Motor-Driven Auxiliary Oil Pumps
                Jacking-Oil Pumps and Priming Pumps
                Oil Tanks
                Piping
                Oil Coolers
                Oil Strainer and Filters
                Cartridge Filters
                Duplex Filters
                Oil Purifiers and Coalescers
                Centrifugal Separation Systems
                Static Oil Purifiers/Coalescers
                Oils and Greases
                Oils
                Greases
                Jacking Oil Systems
                Greasing Systems

    GLAND SEALING SYSTEM
    Function and System Layout
    Labyrinth Seals
    System Layout
    Temperature and Pressure Control
                Temperature Control
                Pressure Control
    Gland Steam Condenser

    FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT TURBINE-GENERATOR
    BALANCING, VIBRATION ANALYSIS AND MAINTENANCE
    Balancing
    Vibration analysis –Cam Bell Diagram
    Turbine-Generator Maintenance

    FEATURES ENHANCING THE RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY OF STEAM TURBINES
    Steam Turbine Design Philosophy
    Measures of Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability
    Design Attributes Enhancing Reliability
                Overall Mechanical Design Approach
                Modern Steam Turbine Design Features
                Impulse Wheel-and-Diaphragm Construction
                Turbine Rotor Design
                Interstage Sealing Components
                Bearings
                Auxiliary Systems
                Controls and Instrumentation
                Continuously-Coupled Last Stage Turbine Buckets
                Special Features of Industrial Turbines
    Design Attributes Enhancing Maintainability
                Maintainability Features
                Turbine Shells
                Low-Pressure Turbine Exhaust Hoods and Inner Casings
                Rotors
                Nozzle Boxes and Diaphragms
                Steam Path Sealing Features
                Primary Steam Valves
                Bearings and Lubrication System
                Bolting
                Turbine-Generator Control and Supervisory Systems
                Maintenance Recommendations
                Cost/Benefit Analysis of High Reliability, Availability and Maintenance
    Performance
                Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability Value Calculation
                Conclusion

    Day II

    GAS TURBINE FUNDAMENTALS
    Gas Turbine cycles
    Ideal cycles
    Waste Heat Recuperators
    Reheat Cycle
    Combined Cycle Plants

    AN OVERVIEW OF GAS TURBINES
    Introduction
    The Brayton Cycle
    Industrial Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines
    Aircraft-Derivative Gas Turbines
    Medium-Range Gas Turbines
    Small Gas Turbines
    Major Gas Turbine Components
                Compressors
                       Axial-Flow Compressors
                       Centrifugal Compressors
                Compressor Materials
                Two-Stage Compression
                Regenerators
                Combustors
                       Tubular (side combustors)
                       Can-annular and Annular
                       Combustor Operation
                Turbines
                       Axial-Flow Turbines
                       Radial-Inflow Turbines
                       Heat Recovery Steam Generators
                       Total Energy Arrangement
                       Gas Turbine Applications
                       Comparison of Gas Turbines with Other Prime Movers

    GAS TURBINE DESIGN
    Introduction
    Compressors
                Compressor Off-Design Performance
                Low rotational speeds
                High rotational speeds
    Combustors
                Principles of Operation
                Combustor Design Details
                Cooling Provisions
                Transition Housing and Ignition
    Turbines
                Turbine operation
                Blade cooling
                Types of cooling
                Effectiveness of the Various Cooling Methods
                Materials
                Performance Degradation

    GAS TURBINE CALCULATIONS
    Regenerative-Cycle Gas-Turbine Analysis
    Calculation Procedure
                      
    DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS TECHNOLOGY
    Introduction
    Centrifugal compressors technology
    Axial compressors overview

    GAS TURBINE COMPRESSORS
    Centrifugal Compressors
    Principle of Operation
    Compressor Characteristics
    Axial Flow Compressors

    COMPRESSOR AUXILIARIES, OFF-DESIGN PERFORMANCE, STALL, AND  
    SURGE
    Introduction
    Compressor auxiliaries
    Compressor off-design performance, low rotational speeds, high rotational speeds
    Performance degradation

    CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS –COMPONENTS, PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS, BALANCING, SURGE PREVENTION SYSTEMS AND TESTING
    Introduction
    Casing Configuration
    Construction features
    Diaphragms
    Interstage seals
    Balance piston seals
    Impeller Thrust
    Performance Characteristics
    Slope of the centrifugal compressor head curve
    Stonewall
    Surge
    Off-design Operation
    Rotor Dynamics
    Rotor Balancing
    Surge Prevention Systems
    Surge Identification
    Liquid Entrainment
    Instrumentation
    Cleaning Centrifugal Compressors
                Appendix A (Boundary Layer)
                       Definition
                       Description of the Boundary Layer
                       Separation; Wake

    DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS PERFORMANCE
    Description of a centrifugal compressor
    Centrifugal compressor types
                Compressors with horizontally-split casings
                Centrifugal compressors with vertically-split casings
                Compressors with bell casings
                Pipeline compressors
                Performance limitations
                Surge limit
                Stonewall
                Prevention of surge
                Anti-surge control systems

    COMPRESSOR SEAL SYSTEMS
    Introduction
    The supply systems
    The seal housing system
    The atmospheric draining system
    The seal leakage system
                The drainer
                The vent system
                The degassing tank
                The supply system
                The seal housing system
                Gas seals
                Liquid seals
                Liquid bushing seals
                Contacts seals
                Restricted bushing seals
                Seal supply systems
                            Flow through the gas side contact seal
                            Flow through the atmospheric side bushing seal
                            Flow through the seal chamber
                Seal liquid leakage system

    Day III

    GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS
    Introduction
    Combustion Terms
    Combustion
    Combustion Chamber Design
    Flame Stabilization
    Combustion and Dilution
    Film Cooling of the Liner
    Fuel Atomization and Ignition
    Gas Injection
    Wall Cooling
    Wall-Cooling Techniques
    Combustor Design Considerations
    Air Pollution Problems
                Smoke
                Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide
                Oxides of Nitrogen
    Typical Combustor Arrangements
    Combustors for Low Emissions
    Combustors for Small Engines (less than 3 MW)
    Industrial Chambers
    Aeroderivative Engines

    AXIAL-FLOW TURBINES
    Introduction
    Turbine Geometry
                Degree of Reaction
                Utilization Factor
                Work Factor
    Impulse Turbine
    The Reaction Turbine
    Turbine Blade Cooling Methods
                Convection Cooling
                Impingement Cooling
                Film Cooling
                Transpiration Cooling
                Water Cooling
    Turbine Blade Cooling Designs
                Convection and Impingement Cooling/Strut Insert Design
                Film and Convection Cooling Design
                Transpiration Cooling Design
                Multiple Small-Hole Design
                Water-Cooled Turbine Blades
    Cooled-Turbine Aerodynamics

    GAS TURBINE MATERIALS
    Introduction
    General Metallurgical Behaviors in Gas Turbines
                Creep and Rapture
                Ductility and Fracture
                Thermal Fatigue
                Corrosion
    Gas Turbine Blade Materials
                Turbine Wheel Alloys
    Coating for Gas Turbine Materials

    GAS TURBINE LUBRICATION AND FUEL SYSTEMS
    Gas Turbine Lubricating Systems
    Cold Start Preparation
    Fuel Systems
    Liquid Fuels
    Water and Sediment
    Carbon Residue
    Trace Metallic Constituents and Sulphur
    Vanadium
    Lead
    Sodium and Potassium
    Calcium
    Sulphur
    Gaseous Fuels
    Gas Fuel Systems
    Liquid Fuel Systems
    Starting
    Intake System
    Compressor Cleaning

    GAS TURBINE BEARING AND SEALS
    Bearings
    Bearing Design Principles
    Tilting-Pad Journal Bearings
    Bearing Materials
    Bearing and Shaft Instabilities
    Thrust Bearings
                Factors Affecting Thrust Bearing Design
                Thrust Bearing Power Loss
    Seals
    Noncontacting Seals
                Labyrinth Seals
                Ring (Bushing) Seals
    Mechanical (Face) Seals
    Seal Systems

    GAS TURBINE INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS
    Vibration Measurement
    Pressure Measurement
    Temperature Measurement
                Thermocouples
                Resistive Thermal Detectors
    Control Systems
                Speed Control
                Temperature Control
                Protective Systems
    Startup Sequence
                Starting Preparations
                Startup Description
                Shutdown
    Fuel System
    Baseline for Machinery
                Mechanical Baseline
                Aerothermal Baseline
                Data Trending
    Compressor Aerothermal Characteristics and Compressor Surge
    Failure Diagnostics
                Compressor Analysis
                Combustor Analysis
                Turbine Analysis
                Turbine Efficiency
    Mechanical Problem Diagnostics
    Instrumentation and Control Systems of a Typical Modern Gas Turbine
                Modern Gas Turbine Control Systems
                Closed-Looped Controllers
    Protective Systems
    Permissives (Interlocks)
    Liquid Fuel Supply
    Start-up Sequence of the Gas Turbine
                Cranking Phase
                Acceleration Phase
                Synchronization Phase
                Loading Phase
                Operation Phase
    Inlet Guide Vanes
    Compressor Bleed Valves
    Transmitters

    GAS TURBINE PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
    Thermodynamic Principles
    Thermodynamic Analysis
    Factors Affecting Gas Turbine Performance
    Air Extraction
    Performance Enhancements
    Inlet Cooling
    Steam and Water Injection for Power Augmentation
    Peak Rating
    Performance Degradation
    Verifying Gas Turbine Performance

    GAS TURBINE OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS
    Introduction
    Gas Turbine Design Maintenance Features
    Borescope Inspection
    Major Factors Influencing Maintenance and Equipment Life
    Starts and Hours Criteria
    Service Factors
    Fuel
    Firing Temperature
    Steam/Water Injection
    Cyclic Effects
    Air Quality
    Combustion Inspection
    Hot-Gas-Path Inspection
    Major Inspection

    GAS TURBINE EMISSION GUIDELINES AND CONTROL METHODS
    Background
    Emissions from Gas Turbines
    General Approach for a National Emission Guideline
    NOx Emission Target Levels
    Power Output Allowance
    Heat Recovery Allowance
    Emission Levels for Other Contaminants
    Carbon Monoxide      
    Sulphur Dioxide
    Other Contaminants
    Size Ranges for Emission Targets
    Peaking Units
    Emission Monitoring
    NOX Emission Control Methods
    Water and Steam Injection
    Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
    Dry Low-NOX Combustors

    Day IV

    COMBINED CYCLES
    The Nonideal Brayton Cycle
    Modifications to the Brayton Cycle
    Regeneration
    Compressor Intercooling
    Turbine Reheat
    Water Injection
    Design for High Temperature
    Materials
    Cooling
                Air Cooling
                Water Cooling
    Fuels
    Combined Cycles
                Combined Cycles with Heat-Recovery Boiler
                The STAG Combined-Cycle Power Plant
                Combined Cycles with Multi-pressure Steam

    INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLES
    Introduction
    IGCC Processes
    IGCC Plant Considerations
                Turnkey Cost
                Size of IGCC
                Output Enhancement
                Emission Reduction
                Nitrogen Oxides
                Air Pollutants
                Mercury
                Carbon Dioxide
    Reliability, Availability and Maintenance
    Coke fuel, Introduction, Properties and Usage, Other Coking Processes

    SINGLE-SHAFT COMBINED-CYCLE POWER GENERATION PLANTS
    Introduction
    Performance of Single-Shaft Combined-Cycle Plants
    Environmental Impact
    Equipment Configurations
    Starting Systems
    Auxiliary Steam Supply
    Plant Arrangement
    Maintenance
    Advantages of Single-Shaft Combined Cycle Plants

    ABSORPTION CHILLERS
    Introduction
    Lithium Bromide cycles

    SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS OF COMBINED CYCLES AND CO
    GENERATION PLANTS
    Introduction
    The Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG)
    Cogeneration Steam Considerations
    Requirement of Chrome-Moly Steel
    Misleading Thermodynamics
    Equipment Availability
    Maintenance Cost
    Operational Cost
    Turbine Cost
    Operating Staff
    Heat of Condensation
    Pipework of Steam Host
    Requirement of Steam Host
    Combined Cycle
    Selection and Economics of Combined Cycles
    Guidelines

    APPLICATIONS OF CO-GENERATION AND COMBINED CYCLE PLANTS
    Guidelines for Addition of a Steam Turbine
    Scenario a –Food Processing Plant
    Solution

    Scenario B –Repowering a Power Generating Plant

    Solution
    Scenario C –Chemical Plant
    Solution
    Scenario D –Pulp and Paper Plant
    Solution

    COGENERATION APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS
    Cogeneration
    Net Heat to Process and Fuel Chargeable to Power
    Steam Turbines for Cogeneration
    Gas Turbine Power Enhancement
    Gas Turbine Exhaust Heat Recovery
    Heat Recovery Steam Generators
    Unfired HRSG
    Supplementary –Fired HRSG
    Fully-Fired HRSG
    Cycle Configurations
    Cogeneration Opportunities

    UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO CENTRAL STEAM, CO-GENERATION & DISTRICT HEATING PLANT         
    Historical Background
    Plant description and details

    ECONOMIC AND TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR COMBINED CYCLE PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OPTIONS
    Introduction
    Economic Evaluation Technique
    Output Enhancement
    Gas Turbine Inlet Air Cooling
    Evaporative Cooling
    Evaporative Cooling Methods
    Evaporative Cooling Theory
    Wetted-Honeycomb Evaporative Coolers
    Water Requirements for Evaporative Coolers
    Foggers
    Evaporative Intercooling
     Inlet Chilling
    Inlet Chilling Methods
    Off-Peak Thermal Energy Storage
    Gas Vaporizers of Liquefied Petroleum Gases
    Power Augmentation
    Gas Turbine Steam/Water Injection
    Supplementary Fired HRSG
    Peak Firing
    Output Enhancement Summary
    Efficiency Enhancement
    Fuel Heating
    Conclusion

    SELECTION OF THE BEST POWER ENHANCEMENT OPTION FOR COMBINED CYCLE PLANTS
    Plant description
    Evaluation of inlet-air pre-cooling option
    Evaluation of inlet-air chilling option
    Evaluation of absorption chilling system
    Evaluation of the steam and water injection options
    Evaluation of supplementary firing in HRSG option
    Comparison of all power enhancement options

    ECONOMICS OF COMBINED CYCLES CO-GENERATION PLANTS
    Deregulation and tax incentives, natural gas prices, and economic growth
    Financial analysis
    Capital cost, operating and maintenance cost
    Economic evaluation of different combined cycles' configurations
    Electricity purchase rate

    Day V

    COMPUTER SIMULATION OF GAS TURBINES
    Introduction
    Effects of ambient temperature on gas turbine performance
    Effects of ambient pressure on gas turbine performance
    Simulation of effects of component deterioration on engine performance
    Compressor fouling
    Turbine damage
    Power Augmentation
    Peak rating
    Power augmentation by water injection
    Simulation of engine control system performance
    Proportional-integral-derivative control loop
    Proportional action
    Proportional and integral action
    Proportional, integral and derivative action
    Signal selection
    Optimizing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT)
    Trips
    Variable Inlet Guide Vanes (VIGV) control
    Profits, Revenue and Life Cycle Cost Analysis
    Effects of ambient temperature and pressure on life cycle cost
    Power augmentation
    Performance deterioration
    Maintenance cost
    Non-Dimensional Analysis
    Application of Flow Compatibility Equation during Hot End Damage
    Application of Flow Compatibility Equation When the Ambient Temperature Drops  
    Computer Simulation Applications
    Computer simulation applications for several gas turbine installations
    Computer simulation applications for several co-generation and combined cycle plants
                      
    COMPUTER SIMULATION OF GAS TURBINES AND COMBINED CYCLES EXCERCISES AND SOLUTIONS
    Effects of ambient temperature and pressure on engine performance:
    Determine the maximum generator power, gas turbine shaft power and thermal efficiency for the engine when operating at ISO conditions. What is the creep life usage of the turbine? ISO conditions refer to an ambient temperature and pressure of 15 degrees Celsius and 1.013Bar respectively and zero inlet and exhaust losses. What limits the power output from the gas turbine?
    Determine the emissions from the gas turbine and hence calculate the amount of NOx, CO and CO2 in Tonnes/year       

  • The engine operating at site has the following conditions:
  •  • Ambient temperature 15 degrees Celsius
     • Ambient pressure 1.013 Bar
     • Inlet and exhaust loss of 100 mm water gauge
           2.  Determine the parameters in exercise 1 above and calculate the percent changes in
    the parameters when operating at site rated conditions. Explain the changes in the
    turbine life usage
           3.  Determine the percent changes in the parameters in exercise 1 when:
    1) The ambient temperature is 30 degrees Celsius
    2) The ambient temperature is zero degrees Celsius
    3) The ambient temperature is –15 degrees Celsius
    What limits the power output from the gas turbine when operating at these
    ambient temperatures?
    Repeat this simulation exercise using the control system option 2. Comment on
    the operation of the variable inlet guide vane (VIGV) at these ambient conditions
           4.  When operating at site rated conditions as stipulated in exercise 2, determine the
    parameters in exercise 1 when the ambient pressure is 0.975 Bar and calculate the
    percent change from the values determined in exercise 1 above.
           5. When the required power output from the generator is 37MW and the ambient
    pressure and temperature are 0.975 Bar and 15 degrees Celsius respectively.
    Determine the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine. If the ambient pressure
    increases to 1.03 Bar explain the why the thermal efficiency decreases and explain the changes in the turbine creep life usage and emissions.
            6. Produce a graph describing the maximum gas turbine power output with ambient
    temperature indicating what engine parameter restricts the capacity of the gas
    turbine at different ambient temperatures. Also, determine the ambient
    temperature when the engine power output is limited by exhaust gas temperature
    and maximum power limit. The variation in ambient temperature should be from
    30 to –17 degrees Celsius in steps of 10 degrees.
            7. Increased filter loss and low ambient pressure reduces the compressor inlet
    pressure. When the engine developing 37MW of electrical power explain
    difference in thermal efficiency when the compressor inlet pressure decreases due
    to a high filter loss and low ambient pressure.
            8. Use the gas turbine to demonstrate the benefits of a closed cycle gas turbine.
            9. If this engine operates as a closed cycle gas turbine using air as the working fluid
                with a system pressure is 5 Bars, estimate the maximum power output from the
    gas turbine. What is the thermal efficiency of the closed cycle gas turbine?
    Assume a compressor inlet temperature of 15 degrees Celsius.
          10. A factory is being planed and it has been decided that the plant shall generate its
    own electrical power of 32 MW with the prospect of selling any surplus power to
    the grid. Two possible sites are suitable. The average ambient temperature and
    pressure of the first site is 30 Celsius and 1.013 Bar respectively. The second site
    is at a higher elevation and the average ambient temperature and pressure is 15
    degrees Celsius and 0.975 Bar respectively. Use the simulator to determine the
    most suitable site based on engine performance. Assume an inlet and exhaust loss
    of 100 mm water gauge respectively.

    FUNDAMENTAL OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
    Capacitors
    Current and Resistance
    The Magnetic Field
    Ampère’s Law
    Magnetic Field in a Solenoid
    Faraday’s Law of Induction
    Lenz’s Law
    Inductance
    Alternating Currents
                Resistive Circuit
                Capacitive Circuit
                Inductive Curcuit

    INTRODUCTION TO MACHINERY PRINCIPLES

    ELECTRIC MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS
    Common Terms and Principles
    The Magnetic Field
                Production of a Magnetic Field
                Magnetic Behavior of Ferromagnetic Materials
    Energy Losses in a Ferromagnetic Core
                Faraday’s Law –Induced Voltage From a Magnetic Field Changing With Time
                Production of Induced Force on a Wire
                Induced Voltage on a Conductor Moving in a Magnetic Field

    TRANSFORMERS
    Importance of Transformers
    Types and Construction of Transformers
    The Ideal Transformer
    Power in an Ideal Transformer
    Impedance Transformation through a Transformer
    Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal Transformers
    Theory of Operation of Real Single-Phase Transformers
    The Voltage Ratio across a Transformer
    The Magnetizing Current in a Real Transformer
    The Equivalent Circuit of a Transformer
    The Exact Equivalent Circuit of a Real Transformer
    Approximate Equivalent Circuits of a Transformer

    TRANSFORMER COMPONENTS AND MAINTENANCE
    Introduction
    Classification of Transformers
    Dry Transformers
    Oil-Immersed Transformers
    Main Components of a Power Transformer
    Transformer Core
    Windings
    Nitrogen Demand System
    Conservator Tank with Air Cell
    Current Transformers
    Bushings
    Tap Changers
    Insulation
    Types and Features of Insulation
    Reasons for Deterioration
    Forces
    Cause of Transformer Failures
    Transformer Oil
    Testing Transformer Insulating Oil
    Causes of Deterioration
                The Neutralization Number Test
    The Interfacial Tension Test
    The Myers Index Number
    The Transformer Oil Classification System
    Methods of Dealing with Bad Oil
    Gas-in-Oil
    Gas Relay and Collection Systems
    Introduction
    Gas Relay
    Relief Devices
    Interconnection with the Grid

    AC MACHINE FUNDAMENTALS
    The Rotating Magnetic Field
    Proof of the Rotating Magnetic Flux Concept
    The Relationship between Electrical Frequency and the Speed of Magnetic Field Rotation
    Reversing the Direction of the Magnetic Field Rotation
    Induced Voltage in AC Machines
    The Induced Voltage in a Coil on a Two-Pole Stator
    The Induced Voltage in a Three-Phase Set of Coils
    The RMS Voltage in a Three-Phase Stator
    The Induced Torque in the AC Machine
    Winding Insulation in AC Machines
    AC Machine Power Flows and Losses

    SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS

    SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR CONSTRUCTION
    The Speed of Rotation of a Synchronous Generator
    The Internal Generated Voltage of a Synchronous Generator
    The Equivalent Circuit of a Synchronous Generator
    The Phasor Diagram of a Synchronous Generator
    Power and Torque in Synchronous Generators
    The Synchronous Generator Operating Alone
    The Effect of Load Changes on a Synchronous Generator Operating Alone
    Parallel Operation of AC Generators
    The Conditions Required for Paralleling
    The General Procedure for Paralleling Generators
    Frequency-Power and Voltage-Reactive Power Characteristics of a Synchronous Generator
    Operation of Generators in Parallel with Large Power Systems
    Synchronous Generator Ratings
    The Voltage, Speed and Frequency Ratings
    Apparent Power and Power-Factor Ratings
    Synchronous Generator Capability Curves
    Short-Time Operation and Service Factor

    GENERATOR COMPONENTS, AUXILIARIES AND EXCITATION
    Introduction
    The Rotor
    Rotor Winding
    Rotor End Rings
    Wedges and Dampers
    Sliprings, Brushgear and Shaft Grounding
    Fans
    Rotor Threading and Alignment
    Vibration
    Bearings and Seals
    Size and Weight
    Turbine-Generator Component –The Stator
    Stator Core
    Core Frame
    Stator Winding
    End Winding Support
    Electrical Connections and Terminals
                Stator Winding Cooling Components
                Hydrogen Cooling Components
                Stator Casing
    Cooling Systems
    Hydrogen Cooling
    Hydrogen Cooling System
    Shaft Seals and Seal Oil System
    Thrust Type Seal
    Journal Type Seal
    Seal Oil Systems
    Stator Winding Water Cooling System
                Other Cooling Systems
    Excitation
    AC Excitation Systems
    Exciter Transient Performance
    The Pilot Exciter
    Exciter Performance Testing
    Pilot Exciter Protection
    Brushless Excitation Systems
    The Rotating Armature Main Exciter
    The Voltage-Regulator
    Background
    System Description
    The Regulator
    Auto Follow-Up Circuit
    Manual Follow-Up
    AVR Protection
    The Digital AVR
    Excitation Control
    Rotor Current Limiter
    Overfluxing Limit
                The Power System Stabilizer
                Characteristics of Generator Exciter Power System (GEP)
                Excitation System Analysis
    Generator Operation
    Running-up to Speed
    Open Circuit Conditions and Synchronizing
    The Application of a Load
    Capability Chart
    Neutral Grounding
    Rotor Torque

    GENERATOR TESTING, INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE
    Generator Operational Checks
    Major Overhaul
    Appendix A –Generator Diagnostic Testing
    Introduction
    Stator Insulation Tests
    DC Tests for Stator and Rotor Windings
                       Insulation Resistance and Polarization Index
           Test Setup and Performance
                   Interpretation
                   DC Hipot Test
           High Voltage Step and Ramp Tests
           AC Tests for Stator Windings
           Partial Discharge Tests
                  Off-Line Conventional PD Test
                   Test Setup and Performance
                   Interpretation
                   On-Line Conventional pd Test
           Dissipation Factor and Tip-Up Test
                   Tip-Up Test
           Stator Turn Insulation Surge Test
           Synchronous Machine Rotor Windings
           Open Circuit Test for Shorted Turns
           Air Gap Search Coil for Detecting Shorted Turns
           Impedance Test with Rotor Installed
           Detecting the Location of Shorted Turns with Rotor Removed
           Low Voltage AC Test
           Low Voltage DC Test
           Field Winding Ground Fault Detectors
           Surge Testing for Rotor Shorted Turns and Ground Faults
           Low Core Flux Test (EL-CID)
    Appendix B –Mechanical Tests
           Introduction
           Stator Windings Tightness Check
           Stator Winding Side Clearance Check
           Core Laminations Tightness Check
           Visual Techniques
                   Groundwall Insulation
                   Rotor Winding
                            Turn Insulation
                            Slot Wedges and Bracing

    MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
    Review of Thermodynamic Principles

    ADJOURNMENT

    30 PDHs

    LEARNING OUTCOMES:

    • Gain a thorough understanding of computer simulation on gas turbines, co-generation, and combined cycle plants
    • Learn about all components and subsystems of the various types of gas turbines, steam power plants, co-generation, and combined cycle plants
    • Examine the advantages, applications, performance and economics of co-generation and combined cycle plants
    • Learn about various equipment including compressors, turbines, governing systems, combustors, deaerators, feed water heaters, transformers, generators, and auxiliaries
    • Discover the maintenance required for gas turbines, steam power plants, and generators to minimize their operating cost and maximize their efficiency, reliability, and longevity
    • Learn about the monitoring and control of environmental emissions
    • Discover the latest instrumentation and control systems of gas turbines and combined cycles
    • Increase your knowledge of predictive and preventive maintenance, reliability and testing
    • Gain a thorough understanding of the selection considerations and applications of co-generation and combined-cycle plants

    FACULTY:

    Philip Kiameh, M.A.Sc., B.Eng., D.Eng., P.Eng. (Canada) has been a teacher at University of Toronto, Canada for 16 years. During this period, he also taught courses and seminars to working engineers and professionals around the world.  He wrote 4 books for working engineers.  Two of them have been published by McGraw-Hill, New York.  The following are the titles of his books:
    1- Power Generation Handbook: Gas Turbines, Steam Power Plants, Co-generation, and Combined Cycles (600 pages), McGraw-Hill, New York, August 2002
    2- Electrical Equipment Handbook (600 pages), McGraw-Hill, New York, March 2003
    3- Industrial Instrumentation and Modern Control Systems (400 pages), Custom Publishing, University of Toronto, University of Toronto Custom Publishing (1999)
    4- Industrial Equipment (600 pages), Custom Publishing, University of Toronto, University of Toronto, University of Toronto Custom Publishing (1999)
    Philip Kiameh has taught more than 4,000 engineers across Europe and North America.  Each engineer that took his seminars has ranked them as "Excellent" or "Very Good".  Prof. Philip Kiameh has won the following awards:
    - The first “Excellence in Teaching” award offered by the Professional Development Center at University of Toronto (May, 1996)
    - The “Excellence in Teaching Award” in April 2007 offered by TUV Akademie (The largest Professional Development centre that provides engineering training to engineers and managers across Europe and the Middle East.  It is based in Germany and the United Arab Emirates).
    - Received “Excellent” or “Very Good” evaluations from more than 4,000 engineers and managers that attended seminars in different Professional Development Centers since 1992 in North America, Europe, and the Middle East.
    - Awarded graduation “With Distinction” from Dalhousie University when Completed Bachelor of Engineering degree in 1983.
    - Entrance Scholarship to University of Ottawa (1984).
    - Natural Science and Engineering Research Counsel (NSERC) scholarship towards graduate studies – Master of Applied Science in Engineering (1984 – 1985).

    Prof. Philip Kiameh performed research on power generation equipment with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at their Chalk River and Whiteshell Nuclear Research Laboratories.  He also has more than 23 years of practical engineering experience with Ontario Power Generation (formerly, Ontario Hydro - the largest electric utility in North America). While in Ontario Hydro, Prof. Philip Kiameh worked as Training Manager, Engineering Supervisor, System Responsible Engineer and Design Engineer. During this period, he was the manager of a section that provides training for the staff at the power stations.  This training covered all the equipment and systems used in power stations.  Philip was also responsible for the operation, maintenance, diagnostics, and testing of gas and steam turbines, generators, motors, transformers, inverters, valves, pumps, compressors, instrumentation and control systems. Further, his responsibilities include design, engineering, diagnose equipment problems and recommend solutions to repair deficiencies and improve system performance, supervising engineers, set-up preventive maintenance programs, write Operating and Design Manuals, and commission new equipment.
    Professor Philip Kiameh was awarded his Bachelor of Engineering Degree “with distinction” from Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. He also received a Master of Applied Science in Engineering (M.A.Sc.) from the University of Ottawa, Canada. He is also a member of the Association of Professional Engineers in the province of Ontario, Canada.


    Prerequisites & Certificates
    Pre-Requisites

    Certificates offered

    3.0 CEUs


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