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Description Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) technology is fast becoming an integral component of modern power transmission systems around the world. Stability of the power system and controllability of transmission line power flows are emerging as key issues in ensuring stable and secure power system operation. FACTS offers a rapid, effective and reliable solution through control of high-power electronic devices. Several FACTS Controllers/Devices are already installed and are being planned by utilities in various provinces in Canada, US and around the world. Their presence is likely to grow even further with the enhancing restructuring of power systems, and with the rapid integration of renewable energy systems, such as wind plants, in power systems. This seminar is geared to provide a comprehensive understanding of fundamental concepts of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) technology. The emphasis in this course is on identification of power system conditions when the installation of FACTS Devices becomes imperative. The course will focus on the operating principles and, more importantly, on the control techniques for the above FACTS Devices in achieving different objectives such as voltage regulation, enhancement of power system stability, argumentation of system damping, alleviation of sub-synchronous resonance, prevention of voltage instability and improving HVDC terminal performance. Concepts of load compensation and power factor correction which are quite important in industrial applications, will also be presented. The intent of this course to create an awareness of the control issues which must be addressed in deciding a specific application of these Controllers. An introduction is provided to the control design techniques and is subsequently illustrated by case studies. The concepts of coordination of multiple FACTS Controllers of both similar and dissimilar kind will also be presented and illustrated through examples. This seminar is a MUST for anyone who is involved in power transmission planning, design and operation, and for all those who wish to develop a comprehensive understanding of reactive power compensation techniques for stable and efficient operation of power systems. Objectives The objective of this course is to introduce participants to the transmission challenges of modern electrical power systems. The course will present the basic concepts, principles and operation of fast high power electronic controllers known as Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) that enhance power system stability and effectively increase transmission capacity thus yielding significantly higher flexibility of operation. The course will focus on Thyristor Based FACTS Controllers, although concepts and applications of Voltage Source Converters based FACTS Controllers will also be presented. Who Should Attend Transmission Engineers and Planners, Electrical Utility Engineers, Managers, Power System Designers, Distribution Engineers, Station Operators, and other technical personnel should attend this course. This seminar will be valuable for all those who are challenged with the issues of voltage regulation, power system stability, and load compensation in power transmission/distribution systems, and are looking for state-of-the-art solutions for solving these power system problems. After Attending This Course You Will Be Able To: Identify the needs of power systems and utility networks where installation of FACTS Controllers/Devices becomes essential Compute power transmission capability of a transmission system and apply reactive compensation methods for its improvement Comprehend the operating principles, control systems and modeling of different FACTS Controllers Understand the influence of measurement systems, network resonances and harmonic interactions on the performance of FACTS control systems Apply the techniques of FACTS controller design for enhancing power transfer, increasing stability, augmenting system damping, mitigating sub-synchronous resonances, preventing voltage instability, performing load compensation, etc. Analyze the interactions amongst various FACTS Controllers Utilize techniques for the coordination of FACTS Devices within power systems Plan the placement of FACTS Devices in the utility networks Program Outline Day I 1. INTRODUCTION TO FACTS 1.1. Electrical Transmission Networks 1.2. Reactive Power Needs of Transmission Lines 1.3. Power Flow in Transmission Lines 1.4. Power System Stability 1.5. Need for FACTS 1.6. High Voltage DC (HVDC) Transmission 2. PRINCIPLES OF CONVENTIONAL REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATORS 2.1. Synchronous Condensers 2.1.1. Configuration 2.1.2. Applications Control of large voltage excursions Dynamic reactive power support at HVDC Terminals 2.2. Saturated Reactor (SR) 2.2.1. Configuration 2.2.2. Operating Characteristics 3. PRINCIPLES OF STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR (SVC) 3.1. Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR) 3.1.1. Single-Phase Thyristor Controlled Reactor 3.1.2. Three-Phase Thyristor Controlled Reactor 3.1.3. Thyristor Switched Reactor (TSR) 3.1.4. Segmented TCR 3.1.5. Twelve-Pulse Thyristor Controlled Reactor 3.1.6. Operating Characteristics of a TCR 3.2. Thyristor Controlled Transformer (TCT) 3.3. Fixed Capacitor - Thyristor Controlled Reactor (FC-TCR) 3.3.1. Configuration 3.3.2. Operating characteristics 3.4. Mechanically Switched Capacitor –Thyristor Controlled Reactor (MSC-TCR) 3.5. Thyristor Switched Capacitor (TSC) 3.5.1. Switching a capacitor to a voltage source 3.5.2. Switching a series connection of capacitor and reactor 3.5.3. Turnoff of TSC valve 3.5.4. Configuration 3.5.5. Operating Characteristics 3.6. Thyristor Switched Capacitor - Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TSC-TCR) 3.6.1. Configuration 3.6.2. Operating characteristic 3.6.3. Mismatched TSC and TCR 3.7. Comparison of Different Static Var Compensators 3.7.1. Losses 3.7.2. Performance 4. STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR (SVC) CONTROL COMPONENTS AND MODELS 4.1. SVC Control System 4.2. Measurement Systems 4.2.1. Voltage measurement 4.2.2. Demodulation effect of voltage measurement system 4.2.3. Current measurement 4.2.4. Power measurement 4.3. Basic voltage regulator 4.3.1. Digital implementation of voltage regulator 4.4. Gate Pulse Generation 4.5. Linearizing function 4.6. Delays in the firing system 4.7. Synchronizing System 4.8. Additional Control and Protection Functions 4.8.1. Susceptance (reactive power) regulator 4.8.2. Control of neighbouring var devices 4.8.3. Undervoltage strategies 4.9. Modeling of SVC for Power System Studies 4.9.1. Modeling for load flow studies 4.9.2. Modeling for small and large disturbance studies 4.9.3. Modeling for electromagnetic transient studies Day II 5. CONCEPTS OF VOLTAGE CONTROL BY STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR 5.1. Voltage Control by SVC 5.1.1. V-I Characteristics of SVC 5.1.2. Advantages of slope in SVC dynamic characteristics 5.2. Influence of SVC on system voltage 5.3. Design of SVC voltage regulator 5.4. Effect of Network Resonances on Controller Response 5.5. Sensitivity to power system parameters 5.6. Sensitivity to TCR operating point 5.7. Methods for Improving Voltage Controller Response 5.7.1. Manual gain switching 5.7.2. Nonlinear gain 5.7.3. Bang-bang control 5.7.4. Gain supervisor 5.8. Harmonic Interactions between SVC and AC Network 5.9. Application of SVC to Series Compensated AC Systems 5.9.1. AC system resonant modes Shunt capacitance resonance Series line resonance Shunt-reactor resonance 5.10. Voltage Controller Design Studies 5.10.1. Modeling aspects 5.10.2. Special performance evaluation studies 5.10.3. Study methodologies for controller design 6. APPLICATIONS OF STATIC VAR COMPENSATORS (SVC) 6.1. Increase in Steady State Power Transfer Capacity 6.2. Enhancement of Transient Stability 6.2.1. Power Angle Curves 6.2.2. Uncompensated system 6.2.3. SVC compensated system 6.3. Augmentation of Power System Damping 6.3.1. Principle of SVC Auxiliary Control 6.3.2. Design of an SVC Power Swing Damping Controller (PSDC) 6.3.3. Selection criteria for PSDC input signals 6.3.4. SVC PSDC requirements 6.3.5. Design procedure for PSDC 6.3.6. Composite Signals for Damping Control 6.4. Mitigation of Subsynchronous Resonance 6.4.1. Principle of SVC Control 6.4.2. Configuration and Design of SVC Controller 6.5. Prevention of Voltage Instability 6.5.1. Principle of SVC Control 6.5.2. Configuration and Design of SVC Controller 6.6. Improvement of HVDC Link Performance 6.6.1. Principle and Application of SVC Control 6.6.2. Voltage regulation Suppression of temporary overvoltages Support during recovery from large disturbances 6.7. Load Compensation 6.7.1. Power Factor Correction 6.7.2. Load Balancing 7. THYRISTOR CONTROLLED SERIES CAPACITOR (TCSC) 7.1. Series Compensation 7.1.1. Fixed Series Compensation 7.1.2. Need for Variable Series Compensation 7.1.3. Advantages of TCSC 7.2. TCSC Controller 7.3. TCSC Operation 7.3.1. Basic Principle 7.3.2. Modes of TCSC Operation Bypassed thyristors mode Blocked thyristors mode Partially-conducting thyristors or Vernier mode 7.4. Thyristor Switched Series Capacitor (TSSC) 7.5. Analysis of TCSC 7.6. Capability Characteristics 7.6.1. Single Module TCSC 7.6.2. Multimodule TCSC 7.7. Harmonic Performance 7.8. Losses 7.9. Response of TCSC 7.10. Modeling of TCSC 7.10.1. Variable Reactance Model 7.10.2. Transient stability Model Day III 8. APPLICATIONS OF THYRISTOR CONTROLLED SERIES CAPACITOR (TCSC) 8.1. Open Loop Control 8.2. Closed Loop Control 8.2.1. Constant Current Control 8.2.2. Constant Current Control 8.2.3. Enhanced Current Control 8.2.4. Enhanced Power Control 8.3. Improvement of Stability 8.4. Enhancement of System Damping 8.5. Principle of Damping 8.5.1. Bang Bang Control 8.5.2. Auxiliary signals for TCSC Modulation 8.5.3. Selection of measurement signals 8.6. Mitigation of SSR 8.6.1. TCSC Impedance at Subsynchronous Frequencies 8.6.2. Case Study 8.7. Prevention of Voltage Collapse 9. COORDINATION OF FACTS CONTROLLERS 9.1. Controller Interactions 9.1.1. Steady State Interactions 9.1.2. Electromechanical Oscillation Interactions 9.1.3. Controller Oscillation Mode Interactions 9.1.4. Subsynchronous Resonance Interactions 9.1.5. High Frequency Interactions 9.2. SVC-SVC Interaction 9.2.1. Effect of Electrical Coupling and Short Circuit Levels 9.2.2. Systems without Series Compensation 9.2.3. Systems with Series Compensation 9.2.4. High Frequency Interactions 9.3. SVC-HVDC Interaction 9.4. SVC-TCSC Interaction 9.4.1. TCSC-PSDC with Bus Voltage Input signal 9.4.2. TCSC-PSDC with System Angle Input Signal 9.4.3. High Frequency Interactions 9.5. TCSC-TCSC Interaction 9.5.1. Effect of Loop Impedance 9.5.2. High Frequency Interaction 9.6. Performance Criteria for Damping Controller Design 9.7. Coordination of Multiple Controllers 9.7.1. Basic Procedure for Controller Design 9.7.2. Enumeration of System Performance Specifications 9.7.3. Selection of Measurement and Control Signals 9.7.4. Validation of Design and Performance Evaluation 10. VOLTAGE SOURCE CONVERTER (VSC) BASED FACTS CONTROLLERS 10.1. Static Synchronous Compensator –STATCOM 10.1.1. Principle of Operation 10.1.2. V-I Characteristic 10.1.3. Harmonic Performance 10.1.4. Applications 10.2. Static Synchronous Series Compensator –SSSC 10.2.1. Principle of Operation 10.2.2. Control System 10.2.3. Applications 10.3. Unified Power Flow Controller –UPFC 10.3.1. Principle of Operation 10.3.2. Applications 10.4. Comparative Evaluation of Different FACTS Controllers 10.4.1. Performance Comparison 10.4.2. Cost Comparison 10.5. FACTS Controllers with Energy Storage 10.5.1. Principle of Operation 10.5.2. Applications 10.6. Future Directions of FACTS Technology 10.6.1. Role of communications 10.6.2. Control design issues Instructor Dr. Rajiv K. Varma, SMG Power Consultant, obtained his B.Tech. and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kanpur, India, in 1980 and 1988, respectively. He is currently an Associate Professor at the University of Western Ontario (UWO), Canada. Prior to this position, he was a faculty member in the Electrical Engineering Department at IIT Kanpur, India, from 1989-2001. While in India, he was awarded the Government of India BOYSCAST Young Scientist Fellowship in 1992-93 to conduct research on Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) at the University of Western Ontario (UWO). He also received the Fulbright grant of the U.S. Educational Foundation in India, to conduct research in FACTS at Bonneville Power Administration (B.P.A.), Portland, Oregon, USA, during May-Aug. 1998. Dr. Rajiv Varma has received nine Teaching Excellence awards both at the Faculty of Engineering and University level at The University of Western Ontario in his eight years tenure. He has taught undergraduate courses on Electric Power Systems, Electric Machines, Electric Energy Conversion involving conventional and renewable energy systems, and graduate course on Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). Dr. Varma has co-authored the book “Thyristor-Based FACTS Controllers for Electrical Transmission Systems” published by IEEE Press and John Wiley & Sons. This book is being used as a textbook in several Universities and is serving as an important comprehensive resource for academicians, students and practicing engineers in FACTS technology, worldwide. This book has also been translated into Chinese by Wiley. He has been the Editor of IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery from 2003-2008. He is the Chair of IEEE Working Group on "FACTS and HVDC Bibliography" and is active on a number of other IEEE working groups. Rajiv Varma has delivered several Tutorials on “Static Var Compensator (SVC)” conducted by the IEEE Substations Committee SVC Working Group, in IEEE Conferences. He has also conducted several courses and Tutorials on FACTS, internationally. His research interests include FACTS, power systems stability, and grid integration of wind and photovoltaic solar power systems. He currently co-leads a pioneering $ 6 million project on “Large-Scale Photovoltaic Solar Power Integration in Transmission and Distribution Networks” funded by the Ontario Centres of Excellence in Ontario, Canada.
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1.8 CEUs / 18 PDHs

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