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Compressors, fans & pumps are among the most frequently used mechanical machines in industrial &commercial enterprises. Achieving correct & efficient application has therefore considerable economic impact. This requires a clear grasp of the basic operati

Course Outline

Compressors, fans and pumps are among the most frequently used mechanical machines in industrial and commercial enterprises. Achieving correct and efficient application has therefore considerable economic impact. This requires a clear grasp of the basic operating principles, machine and system performance characteristics, and selection criteria, plus knowledge of common problems and repair techniques, preventive/predictive maintenance.

Target Audience

Design and project engineers and technologists, plant and facility engineers, consultants, mechanical engineers and technologists, maintenance and operation personnel and other technical personnel who need to upgrade/refresh their current knowledge of compressors, pumps and associated systems.

Course Outline

Faculty: Nick Weber-Brown, P.Eng.

Day I

Introduction to Fluid Machines & Systems
Basic properties of gases and liquids; Gas laws & compressibility effects
Definitions & units of measurement: mass/volume flow rates, absolute & gauge pressures/heads, machine power and efficiency, density/specific volume
Energy transfer & machine efficiency
Affinity laws; uses and limitations
Machine types: Dynamic & Positive Displacement machines
The basic performance chart
System types, machine and system interaction
Machine drivers

Compressor Fundamentals
Compressor types: Positive Displacement (reciprocating and rotary) and Dynamic (centrifugal and axial) compressors
Compressor performance measurement, inlet conditions, compressor performance, energy available for recovery
Intercoolers and aftercoolers, filters and air intake screens

Positive Displacement (PD) Compressors
PD compressor types: reciprocating and rotary machines
Reciprocating piston compressors, double and single acting, trunk and sliding crosshead arrangements, the compression cycle
Valves and seals (design and operation), other key mechanical components
Other reciprocating PD compressors, including diaphragm and bellow types
Rotary PD compressors: screw and lobe types (oil lubricated and oil-free), sliding vane and liquid ring machines
Capacity control of PD compressors

Dynamic Compressors (Turbocompressors)
Principle of operation of centrifugal and axial flow compressors, performance range & characteristics
Centrifugal compressors: single and multistage machines, compression process, impeller designs, inlet nozzles and inlet guide vanes, power requirement
Axial compressors: single and multistage types
Key mechanical components: seals, diaphragms, bearings
Performance characteristics of turbocompressors, surge control
Capacity control of turbocompressors

Compressor System Calculations
Calculation of air leaks from compressed-air systems, annual of leakage cost.
Compressor selection, calculations of air system requirements
Selection of compressor drivers

Compressor Installation & Operation

Fan Fundamentals
Fan types: Centrifugal, Axial and Mixed Flow fans
Fan performance characteristics
Standardized performance measurement

Fan System Calculations
Calculation of duct system pressure; Effects of change in gas density
Methods for varying fan flow rate/pressure
Selecting appropriate fan and driver
Operation of fans in series or parallel connection
Coping with system changes, increase/decrease in flow rate and/or pressure
Common application problems

Fan Installation & Operation

Day II

Pump Fundamentals
Pump types: Dynamic (centrifugal and axial) and Positive Displacement (reciprocating and rotary) pumps
Pump performance measurement

Dynamic Pumps (Centrifugal & Axial Pumps)
Principle of operation of centrifugal and axial flow pumps, performance range & characteristics
Centrifugal pumps: single and multistage machines, impeller designs, inlet nozzles and inlet guide vanes
Cavitation, net positive suction head
Axial pumps: single and multistage types
Key mechanical components: seals, diaphragms, bearings
Capacity control of dynamic pumps
Mechanical seals, bearings, couplings, bedplates, minimum flow requirement
Impeller designs, axial thrust, hydraulic balancing devices, balancing drums, balancing disks

Positive Displacement (PD) Pumps
Principle of operation of PD pumps axial flow pumps, performance range & characteristics
Reciprocating PD pumps: piston pumps, diaphragm pumps, plunger pumps, bellows-type metering pumps
Rotary PD pumps: gear, screw and lobe pumps, sliding vane and rotary piston types

Pump System Calculations
Calculations of inlet/outlet heads; Effects of change in elevation, piping losses
Calculating Net Positive Suction Head
Selecting appropriate pump and driver
Operation of pumps in series or parallel connection
Coping with system changes, increase/decrease in flow rate and/or pumping head.
Common application problems

Pump Installation & Operation

General Mechanical Considerations

Bearings and Lubrication
Bearings types: journal, ball and roller bearings
Bearing sizes, load ratings and L10 life, impact of radial/axial loads on bearing life
Properties of lubricants, lubrication systems, effects of temperature & viscosity, lubricant contamination
Lubricant sampling/testing

Vibration Analysis and Predictive Maintenance
Introduction to vibration measurement & analysis
Vibration transducers and instrumentation
Vibration causes: static/dynamic unbalance, misalignment, mechanical looseness, defects in bearings and gears, oil whirl, blade or vane problems, electric motor defects, uneven loading and drive-shaft torsion.

Basic Acoustics
Definitions of Sound Pressure and Sound Power (decibels)
Acoustic Measurements
Statutory limitations on Sound Pressure Level in the Workplace
Sound attenuation

Concluding Remarks and Adjournment


Nick Weber-Brown, M.A., P.Eng. was educated in the UK where he obtained an honours degree in Mechanical Sciences at Cambridge University.

His working career was spent in the design, manufacture and marketing of various electrical and mechanical machines, and their associated control systems. Nick emigrated to the US in 1977, and settled four years later in Canada. Now retired his final appointment was Vice President, Woods Air Movement (Canada) Ltd.

Nick is a member of Professional Engineers Ontario, and previously of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (UK). He is a Canadian citizen and resides in Ontario.
Prerequisites & Certificates

Certificates offered

A certificate of completed Continuing Education Units (CEUs) will be granted at the end of this course. Each participant will receive a complete set of course notes and handouts that will serve as informative references.

Cancellation Policy
If you wish to withdraw from a course, you must advise us, in writing, including the official receipt. Our policies regarding refund are:

More than fifteen business days in advance: a full refund minus $50.00 administration charge.

Fifteen or less business days in advance: a transfer to another course or a credit, valid for one year, to another GIC course can be considered. Credits are transferable within your organization.

If the course has been running for more than 2 weeks, or after the course has started, an 80% credit towards another GIC course may be considered, if notice is received before the start date of the second session. After this time, no refunds or credits will be issued. If a speaker is not available due to unforeseen circumstances, another speaker of equal ability will be substituted.

GIC reserves the right to cancel or change the date or location of its events. GIC's responsibility will, under no circumstances, exceed the amount of the fee collected. GIC is not responsible for the purchase of non-refundable travel arrangements or accommodations or the cancellation/change fees associated with cancelling them. Please call to confirm that the course is running before confirming travel arrangements and accommodations.

Refund Policy: Allow up to 30 days for refunds to be processed.

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