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This practical course covers medium and high voltage industrial, utility, commercial and institutional substations introducing participants to the up-to-date equipment that makes up an electric substation.

Course Outline
After participating in the seminar, you will be able to:

Use with confidence the knowledge of modern medium and high substation equipment, protection and controls
Apply the clear understanding of needs to use power conditioning equipment to your substations
Assess the modern substation system, equipment, protection and automation
Benefit from your knowledge of how substation equipment operates
Read and relate single line drawings, electrical schematics, to substation equipment protection and control system
Recognize all that is the latest technology in electrical substations


Knowledge of state-of-the-art substation equipment, protection and controls is a prerequisite to decisions in design, construction and operation of high and medium voltage substations. This practical course covers medium and high voltage industrial, utility, commercial and institutional substations introducing participants to the up-to-date equipment that makes up an electric substation. It explains how each type of equipment operates and guides through the protection and control equipment and systems that determine successful and safe substation operation. The participants learn practical aspects of design, construction and operation of power transformers, voltage regulators, power circuit breakers, circuit switchers, and capacitor banks. They also study protective relays, trip schematics and wiring diagrams, auxiliary equipment and systems, metal-clad switchgear, substation automation, communications and integration, and UPS, batteries and battery chargers. It is a unique opportunity to bring you up to date and answer your questions regarding state-of-the-art substation equipment, protection and controls.


To provide a practical review and update on modern substation equipment, protection and controls with emphasis on clear understanding and thorough knowledge of the state-of-art technology.

Who Should Attend

Substation design engineers, industrial, utility, or plant engineers, engineering technicians, substation, planning and operations specialists, consulting engineers, transmission and distribution line design engineers and technicians, electrical project and construction managers and supervisors, managers of electrical design engineering departments, and other individuals involved in the design, construction, operation, or maintenance of medium- or high-voltage substations and distribution facilities. All topics begin at the fundamentals level and take you to the latest advancements.

You Will Receive: extensive course materials that will serve as valuable reference in your work

Program Outline

Day I

Ajit Bapat, Program Director, EPIC

Registration and Coffee

Welcome, Introduction, Workshop Preview, Learning Outcomes and the Assessment Method

Introduction to Electrical Power Distribution Systems
• Canadian Electrical Code
• Voltage classifications
• Fundamentals of electrical power distribution system operation

Modern Substation Types and Purposes
• Fundamentals of electrical substation operation
• Primary unit substations
• Secondary unit substations
• Substation circuit arrangement

Power Transformers and Controls
• Major components
• Construction and operation
• Connections and ratings
• Fixed taps and LTCs

Introduction to Electrical Drawings
• Standards for electrical controls, international context
• Standard electrical symbols
• Single line diagrams
• Schematic and wiring diagrams
• Ladder diagrams

Power Conditioning Systems
• Classification of equipment requiring power conditioning
• Standby versus uninterruptible power
• Categories of power conditioners
• Review of power conditioner types

Class Discussion of Exercise Examples in Transformer Applications

Day II

Ajit Bapat, Program Director, EPIC

Bus and Disconnect Switches
• Types and applications
• Manual and motor-operated switches; control schematics

Power Circuit Breakers
• Purpose and types
• Construction and operation
• Schematics and wiring diagram examples

Metal-Clad Switchgear
• Advantages and applications
• Construction and operation
• Protection and control

Power Supply Systems
• Battery systems
• Purpose and ratings
• Chargers and charging control systems

AC Power Supply Systems
• Station power requirements
• Back-up supplies/sources
• Source transfer control schemes

Power Capacitor and Capacitor Banks
• Principles of power capacitor application
• Power capacitor construction and operation
• Capacitor banks construction and operation
• Switching and protection control schemes

Substation Commissioning
• Acceptance testing equipment
• Start up procedures
• Energizing equipment


Mike Southwood, B.Sc., P.Eng.

Fundamentals of Power System Protective Relaying Systems
• Power system faults
• Requirements of protective relaying systems
• Detection and clearance of power System faults
• Basic fault calculations
• Components of protection systems
• Relay types: electromechanical, electronic and microprocessor-based relays

Instrument Transformers
• Voltage transformers and current transformers
• Theory of operation
• Burden, saturation, and accuracy
• Application and selection
• Testing of CTs and VTs

Coordination of Protection Systems
• Time-current coordination
• Protective relaying zones
• Backup protection on radial systems
• Breaker failure protection on interconnected systems
• Auto-reclosing of circuit breakers

Protective Relaying Systems
• Feeder overcurrent protection
• Bus protection - fundamental principle of differential protection
• Transformer protection

Discussion of Problem Set Given as in Class Assignment.

Questions and Answers and Feedback to Participants on Achievement of Learning Outcomes
There will be ½ hour open forum questions and answers session at the end of each day. Instructors will include examples of engineering applications in each of their presentations.

Daily Schedule:
   Registration and Coffee (Day I only)
8:30   Session begins                                                                                                                   
12:00 Lunch
4:30   Adjournment

There will be a one-hour lunch break each day in addition to refreshment and networking breaks during the morning and afternoon. 


Mike Southwood
Mike Southwood, B.Sc., P.Eng., obtained his degree in Electrical Engineering in the UK. He has 35 years experience in the field of power system protective relaying with the Central Electricity Generating Board in England, and with Ontario Hydro. In 1993 Mr. Southwood took early retirement from Ontario Hydro after 25 years service. He held the position of Senior Protection & Control Engineer in Cherrywood District where he was responsible for commissioning and maintenance of protective relaying, control and metering schemes on the 500 kV, 230 kV and 44 kV systems. Mr. Southwood is currently Chief Electrical Engineer with Eastern Power Ltd., a company that designs, builds and operates non-utility generating stations. He has conducted numerous seminars/courses on power system protection for various industries and universities in major North American cities and for various overseas electrical utilities.

Ajit Bapat
Ajit Bapat is well known in the electrical distribution field having served over 40 years in the industry. His expertise in the art and science of ground fault protection is acknowledged in North America. He holds Master's Degrees in Business Administration and Electrical Engineering, specializing in power systems and power system protection, and has particular interest in ground fault protection, digital metering systems, microprocessor based integrated systems for protection, metering, monitoring and control of power distribution systems. He is a member of Professional Engineers Ontario and a  senior life member of the IEEE.
Prerequisites & Certificates

Certificates offered

1.8 CEU / 18 PDH

Cancellation Policy
To withdraw from a course, you must send a request, in writing, with the official receipt to our office. Fifteen or more business days in advance: full refund less $50.00 administration charge. Five to fifteen business days in advance: non-refundable credit of equal value for any future EPIC seminar within one year. Credits are transferable within your organization. In case of an unexpected event occurring after this time, you may send someone else to take your place without any additional cost.
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Here are some reviews of the training vendor.
The course was very well presented and the course instructor was absolutely amazing.
Reviewed by 2013
Our instructor, Stephen Lamming, was outstanding and a true expert in his field. He was able to complement the technical air monitoring information with practical real life examples which was highly beneficial. He is an excellent communicator and was highly interactive with the course attendees. This course was recommended to me because Stephen Lamming does an outstanding job. I was very impressed with this course and have subsequently recommended it to my colleagues.
Reviewed by 2012
Would have liked more interactive problem solving.
Reviewed by 2011

This course currently does not have any dates scheduled. Please call 1-877-313-8881 to enquire about future dates or scheduling a private, in house course for your team.

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